Thursday, 30 July 2015

56. Bhagadatta austenia montana (The Grey Commodore)

Number: 56
Family: Nymphaliidae
Sub-Family: Limenitidiinae
Species: Bhagadatta austenia montana (Mell, 1923)
Common name(s): The Grey Commodore
Photography location: Tam Dao foothills (Vinh Phuc Prov.)

Bhagadatta austenia is a Sino-Himalayan Nymphalid known from India, Myanmar, Laos, Vietnam and southern China. Bhagadatta is a monotypic genus.
According to Monastyrskii & Devyatkin (2016). B. austenia is recorded from North and Central Vietnam (to Lam Dong Prov.).

Female Bhagadatta austenia, Tam Dao, April 2013

55. Tanaecia julii indochinensis (The Common Earl)

Number: 55
Family: Nymphaliidae
Sub-Family: Limenitidiinae
Species: Tanaecia julii indochinensis (Fruhstorfer, 1905)
Common name(s): The Common Earl
Photography locations: Ba Vi N.P. (Hanoi), Tam Dao (Vinh Phuc Prov.)

The genus Tanaecia is represented in Vietnam by 2 species – julii indochinensis and jahnu jahnides (Monastyrskii & Devyatkin, 2016), both recorded from the 3 main geographic regions of the country.

Female Tanaecia julii indochinensis, upperwings (from BaVi)

Same specimen, underwings

Male (from Tam Dao foothills)

54. Chersonesia risa risa (The Common Maplet)

Number: 54
Family: Nymphaliidae
Sub-Family: Cyrestiinae
Species: Chersonesia risa risa (Doubleday, [1848])
Common name(s): The Common Maplet
Photography location: Cuc Phuong N.P. (Ninh Binh Prov.)

The genus Chersonesia ("Maplets") comprising 7 species, all from Oriental region, viz. rahrioides, intermedia, rahria, peraka, nicevillei, risa and excellens, of which 2 are present in Vietnam – risa and intermedia. Both have been recorded in the 3 main geographic regions of the country, but intermedia is rarer.

Chersonesia risa, Cuc Phuong, May 2013
C. intermedia is similar but the sixth line from base on FW is wavy

53. Euthalia monina kesava (The Powdered Baron)

Number: 53
Family: Nymphaliidae
Sub-Family: Limenitidiinae
Species: Euthalia monina kesava (Moore,1859)
Common name(s): The Powdered Baron
Photography location: Cuc Phuong N.P. (Ninh Binh Prov.), Ba Vi N.P. (Hanoi)

The genus Euthalia (“Barons” and “Counts”) is represented in Vietnam by 32 species – a hard genus with many new species described in the years 1990-2000. Identification is confounded by the fact that the males and females of each species are usually very different in colour and pattern, and because several of the species produce a number of different colour forms or morphs. 

E. monina kesava is recorded in the north and the center of the country. It is replaced further south by E. monina remiasThis species is one of  the commonest members of the genus in Vietnam. It is found in small clearings and glades, on river beaches, and along trails and roads in forest habitats.

E. monina kesava (male), Ba Vi, December 2016
The males have dark greenish upperwings, with a nice blue-green iridescence on the outer part

E. monina kesava (female), Cuc Phuong, July 2013
The female lacks the blue-green iridescence, being a dull earthy brown colour

E. monina kesava (female), Cuc Phuong, July 2013

Obeidia tigrata

Family: Geometriidae
Sub-Family: Ennomiinae
Species:  Obeidia tigrata (Guenee, 1857)
Common name(s): 
Photography location : Cuc Phuong N.P. (Ninh Binh Prov.)

Erebus ephesperis (The Owl Moth)

Family: Noctuiidae
Sub-Family: Erebiinae
Species: Erebus ephesperis (Hübner, 1827)
Common name(s): The Owl Moth
Photography location : Ba Vi N.P. (Hanoi) 

This beautiful Nuctuid Moth looks like a smiling human face with two eyes, nose and mouth !
Has a very wide distribution in Asia, from India to Japan, China and Borneo.

Wednesday, 29 July 2015

52. Heliophorus delacouri (The Delacour's Sapphire)

Number: 52
Family: Lycaeniidae
Sub-Family: Lycaeniinae
Species: Heliophorus delacouri Eliot, 1963
Common name(s): The Delacour's Sapphire (? no official English name)
Photography locations: Tam Dao (Vinh Phuc Prov.), Ba Vi N.P. (Hanoi)

Monastyrskii & Devyatkin (2016) listed 8 Heliophorus species in Vietnam viz. kohimensis, delacouri, ila, epicles, indicus, smaragdinus, brahma and eventa.

Heliophorus delacouri is a restricted range species known from Vietnam (N. & S.) and S.-E. China.

Heliophorus delacouri, male (from Ba Vi)

Heliophorus delacouri, same specimen, upperside
Purple area occupying much more than 2/3 of FW (less than 2/3 in H. epicles)

Another male, from Tam Dao foothills (November 2016)

A supposed female Heliophorus delacouri (Ba Vi, December 2016)

51. Ypthima baldus baldus (The Common Five Ring)

Number: 51
Family: Nymphaliidae
Sub-Family: Satyriinae
Species: Ypthima baldus baldus (Fabricius, 1775)
Common name(s): The Common Five Ring
Photography location: Cuc Phuong N.P. (Ninh Binh Prov.)

The genus Ypthima comprising more than 100 species is mostly distributed in Palaeotropical regions and in the eastern Palaearctic region. The highest Ypthima diversity is known from western China, including Yunnan and Sichuan provinces and from other adjacent countries such as N.E. India, Nepal, Sikkim, Assam, Bhutan, Burma, Thailand including regions of the Indo-Chinese Peninsula, in particularly Laos and Vietnam.
25 Ypthima species are known to occur in Vietnam (Monastyrskii & Devyatkin, 2016).

Ypthima baldus, mating pair, Cuc Phuong

References; Uémura Y. & Monastyrskii, A.L., 2004. A Revisional Catalogue of the genus Ypthima Hubner (Lepidoptera : Satyridae) from Vietnam. You can download it here.

50. Jamides bochus bochus (The Dark Caerulean)

Number: 50
Family: Lycaeniidae
Sub-Family: Polyommatiinae
Species: Jamides bochus bochus (Stoll, [1782])
Common name(s): The Dark Caerulean
Photography location: Hanoi

 The commonest Jamides species in Vietnam, even recorded in urban wastelands (Hanoi).

A male Jamides bochus
In flight, the intense iridescent blue exposed on the upperside wings is magnificent

A female Jamides bochus

Female, same specimen than above
The male is dark metallic blue above on both wings, whereas the female is paler blue with prominent marginal spots on the hindwings

49. Graphium sarpedon sarpedon (The Common Bluebottle)

Number: 49
Family: Papilioniidae
Sub-Family: Papilioniinae
Species: Graphium sarpedon sarpedon (Linnaeus,1758)
Common name(s): The Common Bluebottle, The Blue Triangle (Australia)
Photography location: Hanoi, foothills of Tam Dao (Vinh Phuc Prov.)

Monastyrskii & Devyatkin (2016) listed 20 Graphium species recorded in Vietnam viz. cloanthus, sarpedon, doson, evemon, eurypylus, chironides, leechi, arycles, agamemnon, phidias, macareus, megarus, xenocles, agetes, antiphates, aristeus, nomius, mullah, mandarinus, eurous.
Graphium sarpedon is one of the most wide-ranging Graphium - from India to Australia, range similar to that of  G. agamemnon and G. eurypylus.

This is one of the commonest species of Graphium in Vietnam, being found throughout forested areas over the whole country, both in lowlands and high montane habitats, but can also be seen sometimes in towns and cultivated areas (quite a common sight in Hanoi). The larval foodplant is Cinnamomum.

Graphium sarpedon occurs mainly in forests, often seen flying in great speed near tree canopies, and  occasionally flying low to sip nectar

A Graphium sarpedon puddling at Tây Thiên (Tam Dao foothills), surrounding by some Graphium antiphates (Fivebar Swordtail), Prioneris thestylis (Spotted Sawtooth), Appias albina (Common Albatross), Graphium eurypylus (Great Jay), Catopsila pomona (Lemon Emigrant)... 

Puddle party with G. doson and G. sarpedon

48. Athyma cama camasa (The Orange Staff Sergeant)

Number: 48
Family: Nymphaliidae
Sub-Family: Limenitidiinae
Species: Athyma cama camasa (Fruhstorfer, 1906)
Common name(s): The Orange Staff Sergeant
Photography location: Tam Dao foothills (Vinh Phuc Prov.)

Like Athyma nefte, the two sexes have very different color pattern: male black with white stripes but female dark brown with orange markings. 

Male Athyma cama camasa

47. Ariadne ariadne pallidior (The Angled Castor)

Number: 47
Family: Nymphaliidae
Sub-Family: Biblidiinae
Species: Ariadne ariadne pallidior (Fruhstorfer, 1899)
Common name(s): The Angled Castor
Photography location: Hanoi City

Very similar to A. merione (The Common Castor), by UP with a single dark line crossing both fore and hind wings just beyond the cell - two black lines in A. merione.
A third Ariadne species is recorded in Vietnam : A. specularia (only in the South, whereas the 2 others are widespread).

 Ariadne ariadne is a common sight  in disturbed habitats from forest clearing to wasteland

 Ariadne ariadne caterpillar on Ricinus communis (Hanoi, August 2016)

The castor plant (Ricinus communis) is the most common host and gives the butterfly its name

46. Athyma nefte asita (The Color Sergeant)

Number: 46
Family: Nymphaliidae
Sub-Family: Limenitidiinae
Species: Athyma nefte asita Moore, [1858]
Common name(s): The Color Sergeant
Photography location: Tam Dao foothills (Vinh Phuc Prov.), Ba Vi (Hanoi)

Subsp. asita differs from subrata in having orange outer subapical spots of FW in male, not white.
Like Athyma cama, the two sexes have very different color pattern: male black with white stripes but female dark brown with orange markings.

Male Athyma nefte asita (Tam Dao foothills, June 2014)

A supposed female Athyma nefte asita (Ba Vi foothills, December 2016)
The female A. cama is very similar to the female of A. nefte asita but the bands are narrower & the underside bands well-defined

 Male Athyma nefte asita, upperside

  Male Athyma nefte asita, underside

45. Athyma selenophora batilda (The Staff Sergeant)

Number: 45
Family: Nymphaliidae
Sub-Family: Limenitidiinae
Species:  Athyma selenophora batilda (Fruhstorfer,1908)
Common name(s): The Staff Sergeant
Photography location: Cuu Thac-Tu Son (Hoa Binh Prov.), Xuan Son N.P. (Phu Tho Prov.)

Male Athyma selenophora (Cuu Thac-Tu Son, Hoa Binh, August 2013)
Female is browner above than male, with more patches and stripes

Another male, from Xuan Son (July 2016)

44. Pseudergolis wedah wedah (The Tabby)

Number: 44
Family: Nymphaliidae
Sub-Family: Cyrestiinae
Species: Pseudergolis wedah wedah (Kollar, 1844)
Common name(s): The Tabby
Photography location: Cuu Thac-Tu Son (Hoa Binh Prov.), Ba Vi (Hanoi)

The genus Pseudergolis comprising only two species, P. avesta from Sulawesi and P. wedah from India to Central China.
Pseudergolis wedah is somewhat uncommon in my habitual butt hunting grounds around Hanoi. Its uppersides could be easily mistaken as a Castor (Ariadne species).

Pseudergolis wedah from Ba Vi N.P. (June 2016)

Two specimens of Pseudergolis wedah extracting nutrients from charcoal - Hoa Binh/July 2013

43. Athyma asura asura (The Studded Sergeant)

Number: 43
Family: Nymphaliidae
Sub-Family: Limenitidiinae
Species: Athyma asura Moore, [1858]
Common name(s): The Studded Sergeant
Photography location: Cuu Thac-Tu Son (Hoa Binh Prov.)

The genus Athyma is represented in Vietnam by 15 species – perius, pravara, asura, larymna, kanwa, jina, opalina, orientalis, selenophora, zeroca, whitei, cama, nefte, ranga and punctata  (Monastyrskii & Devyatkin, 2016).

A. asura is a distinctive Athyma with hindwings showing a series of white postdiscal white spots, each of them bears a small black spots in the middle.

Athyma asura perched on rocks along a stream

My camera bag was a fine bait; this specimen poses patiently while sucking sweat

42. Argyreus hyperbius hyperbius (The Indian Fritillary)

Number: 42
Family: Nymphaliidae
Sub-Family: Heliconiinae
Species: Argyreus hyperbius hyperbius (Linnaeus, 1763)
Common name(s): The Indian Fritillary
Photography location: Tam Dao (Vinh Phuc Prov.), Huu Lien N.R. (Lang Son Prov.), Hanoi

Female Argyreus hyperbius - much more beautiful that her male counterpart (Tam Dao, July 2016)

Apical half of Up forewing from about the middle of the costa obliquely to just above the tornus blackish, suffused with purple, and crossed by a broad white band

Female, underwings color pattern (Huu Lien, May 2016)

A pristine male Argyreus hyperbius, from Hanoi City, April 2014 (certainly a vagrant/migrant) 

A tattered, faded male, from Ba Vi foothills (December 2016)

Male, close-up on head

41. Tirumala septentrionis septentrionis (The Dark Blue Tiger)

Number: 41
Family: Nymphaliidae
Sub-Family: Danaiinae
Species: Tirumala septentrionis septentrionis (Butler, 1874)
Common name(s): The Dark Blue Tiger
Photography location: Cuc Phuong N.P. (Ninh Binh Prov.), Ba Vi N.P. (Hanoi)

Monastyrskii & Devyatkin (2016) listed 3 Tirumala species from Vietnam - septentrionis, limniace and gautama, the former two widespread throughout the country, the latter recorded from the center (Quang Binh Prov.) and south.

Tirumala septentrionis feeding on Chromolaena odorata flowers, Ba Vi foothills, December 2016
Absence of a scent scale pouch (at vein 2 on HW) indicates that it is a female

Male Tirumala septentrionis mud-puddling at Cuc Phuong, summer 2013

Underwing pattern

Tirumala cf. septentrionis larva (Ba Vi, April 2017)
Caterpillars in Danainae subfamily have 2 or more long dorsal filaments. They are usually banded with bright warning colour usually black, yellow and white.