Tuesday, 26 September 2017

Ba Vi National Park - Butterfly's Survey 2017

The distinctive outline of Mount Ba Vi, seen from Dông Mô Lake. This mountain has three peaks: the highest is Dinh Vua at 1,296m, followed by Tan Vien at 1,226m and Ngoc Hoa at 1,120m

Last year, I conduct regular surveys at Ba Vi National Park (located 70 km west of Hanoi). Regular sampling was carried out from March to November 2017.  The surveys were performed along a ca.5km transect (ranging in altitude from 100-800m) divided in different segments, along paths and small roads. A total of 15 man-days were spent in the field.

Three types of ecosystem were surveyed i. e. secondary forest, old-growth forest with dense canopies and ecotones dominated by shrubs. The old-growth, closed-canopy evergreen forest, from 700-800m to 1,300m asl, has been under-surveyed for some reasons, hence the lack of strictly montane species in my checklist. I will try to fill that gap this year.

Close to the summit: Dinh Vua Peak (1,296m asl) on the left, Tan Vien Peak (1,226m asl) on the right.
The natural old-growth forest is mainly distributed at elevation above 700m

To identify the species, specimens encountered were either observed with binoculars or photographed. Few specimens were captured and none were collected for later identification (permit is required for collecting in nature reserves and national parks). I am fully aware of the limitation of this sampling method ("butterfly-watcher" style...), especially for taxonomically complicated genera (in the Hesperiidae family notably) which require sometimes that specimens are collected for further examination. Nevertheless, 95% of the specimens photographed/captured were confidently identified at species-level (the remaining at genus-level).

In total, I recorded c.180 species of butterflies. I am aware of two previous studies of Ba Vi's butterfly fauna. The one of Bui Xuan Phuong et al. (2003) listed 141 species, the one of Vu Van Lien et al. (2013) 92 species.

Intense studies in this area will certainly reveal much more species, especially members of the Hesperiidae and Lycaenidae families which have low detectability because of their small size, localized appearance and strong habitat preferences.

Checklist of the species: 

Troides aeacus +
Troides helena + 
Byasa dasarada +
Pachliopta aristolochiae +
Atrophaneura aidoneus 
Chilasa clytia ++
Papilio nephelus +++
Papilio demoleus ++
Papilio helenus +++
Papilio polytes +++
Papilio memnon +++
Papilio protenor ++
Papilio bianor ++
Papilio doddsi ++
Papilio paris +++
Graphium sarpedon +++
Graphium doson + +
Graphium agamemnon +++
Graphium antiphates +
Graphium xenocles 
Lamproptera curius ++
Lamproptera meges ++

Delias pasithoe ++
Delias hyparete ++
Delias acalis +
Prioneris thestylis +
Prioneris philonome +
Pieris canidia ++
Pieris rapae ++
Appias lyncida +++
Appias albina ++
Appias lalage +
Appias indra +
Appias paulina
Appias pandione
Appias galba
Cepora nadina ++
Cepora nerissa ++
Hebomoia glaucippe +
Ixias pyrene +
Eurema andersoni ++
Eurema hecabe ++
Catopsilia pomona +++
Catopsila pyranthe +
Leptosia nina 

Thauria lathyi +
Thaumantis diores +
Faunis eumeus + 
Stichophthalma suffusa ++
Danaus genutia ++
Danaus chrysippus +
Parantica aglea +++
Parantica sita +
Parantica melaneus +++
Euploea mulciber +++
Euploea core +++
Euploea tulliolus +++
Euploea sylvester ++
Euploea radamanthus +
Euploea eunice
Tirumala septentrionis +++
Tirumala limniace +++
Ideopsis vulgaris +++
Elymnias hypermnestra +
Elymnias malelas +
Elymnias patna +
Melanitis leda ++
Melanitis phedima ++
Lethe confusa ++
Lethe europa +
Lethe chandica +
Lethe sinorix
Lethe mekara +
Neope muirheadi +
Mycalesis inopia ++
Mycalesis mucianus ++
Mycalesis malsara ++
Mycalesis cf. perseoides +
Ypthima baldus +++
Discophora sondaica +
Vanessa cardui +
Acraea issoria +
Pseudergolis wedah +
Ariadne ariadne +++
Athyma asura ++
Athyma selenophora ++
Athyma ranga +
Athyma nefte +
Moduza procris +
Cupha erymanthis +++
Cethosia cyane +++
Cethosia biblis ++
Argyreus hyperbius +
Phalanta phalantha +
Cirrochroa tyche +
Hestinalis nama +
Euripus nyctelius + 
Lexias pardalis +
Symbrethia lilaea +++
Symbrethia hypselis +


Juniona iphita +++
Juniona almana ++
Juniona atlites ++
Hypolimnias bolina ++
Hypolimnia misippus +
Kallima cf. incognita +
Cyrestis thyodamas ++
Parthenos sylvia ++
Vindula erota ++
Stibochiona nicea +
Pantoporia hordonia ++
Neptis hylas +++
Neptis harita ++
Neptis clinia +++
Neptis miah +
Neptis nata +
Polyura athamas +
Polyura nepenthes
Charaxes bernardus +
Eulaceura osteria 
Euthalia lubentina  +
Euthalia monina +
Euthalia alpheda + 
Euthalia phemius +
Euthalia aconthea +
Cynitia lepidea +
Cynitia whiteheadi +
Tanaecia julii +
Libythea sp.

Zemeros flegyas +++
Dodona ouida

Jamides celeno +++
Jamides alecto +++
Zizina otis ++
Megisba malaya +
Nacaduba kurava ++
Nacaduba pactolus +
Prosotas nora +
Prosotas dubiosa +
Lampides boeticus +
Euchrysops cnejus +
Acytolepis puspa +
Celastrina lavendularis +
Udara dilecta  +
Curetis bulis +
Tongeia potanini + 
Catochrysops strabo +
Leptotes plinius +
Sinthusa chandrana ++ 
Chilades pandava
Neopithecops zalmora + 
Yasoda tripunctata ++
Heliophorus delacouri ++
Horaga onyx +
Arhopala cf. eumolphus
Rapala suffusa ++
Rapala varuna +
Rapala manea +
Deudorix epijarbas +
Cigaritis syama ++
Cigaritis lohita +
Artipe eryx +
Tajuria maculata
Tajuria cf. yajna
Surendra quercetorum + 

Hasora badra +
Pseudocoladenia dan +
Mooreana trichoneura +++
Satarupa gopala ++
Tagiadies litigiosa ++
Tagiades menaka +
Tagiades parra +
Odontoptilum angulata +
Celaenorrhinus vietnamicus ++
Badamia exclamationis
Notocrypta paralysos +
Notocrypta  curvifascia +
Udaspes folus ++
Matapa aria/druna ++
Matapa sasivarna +
Pithauria stramineipennis +
Pirdana hyela +
Halpe cf. porus ++
Halpe zola/zema ++
Asticopterus jama ++
Borbo cinnara ++ +
Baoris farri + 
Caltoris ssp. +
Potanthus ssp. ++
Telicota ssp. ++
Parnara guttata ++
Parnara ssp. +++
Suada albolineata +
Pelopidas conjuncta ++
Pelopidas cf. agna ++
Polytremis lubricans ++
Ancistroides nigrita +
Iambrix salsala ++
Isoteinon lamprospilus +

("Abundance" : + recorded on 1-2 day during the SP, ++ recorded on 2-7 days/SP, +++ recorded on 7-15 days/SP)
Sampling period (SP) = c.15 days
Species in red: Update Survey 2018
Species in green: Update Survey 2020

Troides aeacus, male
Troides species are usually seen gliding slowly over the canopy and not often seen feeding off the flowers at eye-level, moving from bush to bush. An opportunity not to be missed! 

 Byasa dasarada barata, female
 I was happy to see at close range this - worn - specimen (September)

Chilasa clytia

Papilio bianor gladiator

Papilio doddsi

Papilio paris
Papilio paris belongs to the subgenus Achillides ("Gloss Papilios"). The other representants of this subgenus known in Vietnam are P. doddsi, P. arcturus arcturus, P. krishna charlesi & P. bianor gladiator. 

Papilio paris - very similar to the much rarer (and montane species) P. arcturus but blue patch of different shape (somewhat quadrate in paris, elongate in arcturus)

Papilio protenor

Papilio nephelus, female

Papilio memnon agenor, male

Papilio memnon agenor, female displaying the tailess form agenor 

Papilio memnon agenor, female displaying the tailed form alcanor
This form is a mimic of the unpalatable (toxic) Atrophaneura swallowtails, while form agenor is non-mimetic

Papilio polytes courtship, with the female (right) displaying the stichius form

Papilio polytes, female displaying the stichius form

Papilio demoleus - nice encounter of two insect pollinators around the same flower

Graphium sarpedon 

Graphium antiphates puddling with Appias albina at an old fire pit
This puddling congregation was one of the rare I spotted during this survey

An unusual shot of a nectaring Graphium antiphates - much more often seen puddling

Graphium doson

Graphium xenocles - an addition to the species list from Summer 2018
Quite unusual to see this species flowering - more often seen puddling
Both sexes exhibit a flight pattern similar to the Danainae models which they mimic, slow and seemingly unafraid; but, unlike the models, will fly away quickly if disturbed.

Lamproptera curius
The forewing has a triangular hyaline (glass-like) patch with black borders

Delias acalis
Looks superficially like D. pasithoe but larger and UnH yellow postdiscal markings arranged differently and more regularly

Delias pasithoe

Delias hyparete

Prioneris thestylis 

Prioneris philonome

Pieris canidia

Pieris rapae
There may be as many as 34 species of Pieris worldwide, although the status of some is uncertain. The commonest and most widespread species is rapae, which was originally restricted to Europe and temperate Asia but has been introduced accidentally to North America, Africa, South-East Asia, Australia and New Zealand.
The caterpillar of this species is seen as a pest for agriculture.

Pieris rapae - courtship

Appias lyncida , female

Appias paulina, male
An addition to the species list from Spring 2018

Catopsilia pomona - copula between male f. hilaria (top) and female f. pomona

Catopsilia pomona - male f. alcmeone

Catopsilia pomona - female f. catilla

Catopsila pyranthe - much rarer than C. pomona
Beneath, the wings show many rather faint and short transverse striae, giving a "mottled" appearance 

Hebomoia glaucippe, female - occasions to get an upperside shot of this species are rare!

 Ixias pyrene - same remark than Hebomoia glaucippe

Leptosia nina - a low flying (usually less than 1 meter high) and delicate Pierid butterfly with weak and erratic flight
The genus Leptosia comprises 9 species, all found in Africa, except for L. lignea which is endemic to Sulawesi and L. nina which ranges from India to Australia.

Stichophthalma suffusa tonkiniana feeding on Broussonetia papyrifera fruits

Stichophthalma suffusa tonkiniana

According to Monastyrskii & Devyatkin (2016), the subfamily Amathusiinae is represented in Vietnam by 10 genera: Faunis (5 species), Aemona (7 species), Stichophtalma (8 species), Amathusia (1 species), Amathuxidia (1 species), Zeuxidia (2 species), Thaumantis (1 species), Thauria (1 species), Discophora (4 species), Enispe (3 species).

Stichophthalma howqua suffusa has been raised to species S. suffusa Leech, 1892 (Monastyrskii & Devyatkin, 2008). S. suffusa tonkiniana has an ocre-yellow ground color on the Up of both wings with completely fused submarginal black markings on the UpH.
At Ba Vi, this species occupies both primary and secondary forest habitats, at all elevations.

Thauria lathyi feeding on rotten fruits with Stichophthalma suffusa tonkiniana

Thaumantis diores

The genus Thaumantis ("Jungle Glories") comprises 5 species (diores, klugius, noureddin, odana, hainana). Only T. diores is known from Vietnam, with two subspecies recognized : T. diores diores in the north and T. diores splendens further south.

Thaumantis diores is a common sight in my habitual butt hunting grounds around Hanoi, both in lowland and montane forests. This species inhabits shady undergrowth and is attracted by fruits and moist litter.

Faunis eumeus enjoying the glorious morning sun

According to Monastyrskii  & Devyatkin (2016), 5 Faunis species have been recorded in Vietnam viz. F. eumeus (N. and C. Vietnam), F. canens (N. and C.), F. excelsa (N. and C.), F. bicoloratus (C.) and F. centrala (C.).
Centrala and excelsa have Up of both wings grey. The 3 other species have brown Up.

Danaus genutia - one of the commonest butterflies in Vietnam
Four Danaus species are recorded in Vietnam: D. chrysippus, P. genutia, D. melanippus & D. affinis. Only the two former are recorded in the North of the country, where they are very common.

Danaus genutia, 5th instar caterpillar
The caterpillars of the sub-family Danainae have several long paired 'tentacles' (stinkhorns) on the back

Parantica melaneus
The genus Parantica comprises 39 species, of which 6 are known to occur in Vietnam viz. aglea, agleoides, aspasia, melaneus, swinhoei, sita.

Euploea sylvester harrisii 
E. sylvester is one of my favourites, with the dark metallic blue sheen (upperwing) contrasting with the row of pale blue submarginal spots

Euploea eunice

Euploea radamanthus - I only managed to get some poor record shots (heavily cropped)
To my knowledge, until now, there was only one record from northern Vietnam (Cuc Phuong). But as this species is also known from southern China, its presence at Ba Vi is not really surprising.

Tirumala septentrionis the cent scale pouch (at vein 2 on HW) indicates that it is a male

Tirumala limniace - male
Monastyrskii & Devyatkin (2016) listed 3 Tirumala species from Vietnam - septentrionis, limniace and gautama, the former two widespread throughout the country, the latter recorded from the center (Quang Binh Prov.) and south.  Tirumala limniace is similar to T. septentrionalis, but with broader and paler blue streaks as well as spots. T. gautama can be easily separated from the latter two by the FW discal cell with an additional blue streak along the anterior margin

Elymnias malelas
The smell of the handlebar grip of my motorbike was irresistible to this individual

Elymnias patna   

Melanitis leda - wet season form

Melanitis leda - dry season form

Mycalesis inopia - wet season form

Mycalesis inopia - dry season form

Mycalesis mucianus (= zonata- dry season form

Mycalesis mucianus - wet season form

Mycalesis malsara - wet season form
The wet season form is characterized by large submarginal eyespots. These patterns are conspicuous when the butterflies are at rest on leaf litter or low herbage. 

Mycalesis malsara - dry season form
The dry season form lacks conspicuous wing markings. Such changes may favour crypsis and the absence of conspicuous pattern elements in the dry season when the satyrine butterflies rest inactively on the dead leaves while the wet season butterflies, which are active and rest intermittently on the green herbage, may use eyespots and bands as active anti-predator devices

Mycalesis individual of the mineus-group, very likely M. perseoides

Lethe confusa - the commonest Lethe species in the surveyed zone
Less elusive than other Lethe butterflies - often witnessed males perched at eye-level defending their territory and chasing away any 'intruders' (of whatever species)

Lethe chandica 
Northern Vietnam is a region of particularly high levels of diversity for this genus, hosting over 80% of the known number of species (Monastyskii pp.32. in Anon, 2001). 

Lethe sinorix - a montane species
An addition to the species list from Summer 2018

Lethe mekara, male

Neope muirheadi feeding on Broussonetia papyrifera fruits

Ypthima baldus, mating pair - wet season form
25 Ypthima species are known to occur in Vietnam (Monastyrskii & Devyatkin, 2016)

A dry season form of Ypthima baldus looks so different from the wet season form

Discophora sondaica
This rather elusive butterfly has its hindwing sharphly angled at tornus. The undersides are of a drab ochreous brown with heavy but blurred striation, giving it a cryptic appearance among the leaf litters of the undergrowth
Discophora species currently known in Vietnam: sondaica, deo, timora and aestheta - the last one described in 2003 from S.Vietnam (Dong Nai Prov., Cat Tien National Park).

Vanessa cardui
One of the most widespread of all butterflies, found on every continent except Antarctica (where no butterflies occur). Despite its incredible range, V. cardui is monotypic, i.e. there are not recognized subspecies. This probably reflects the fact that it is strongly migratory, a behavior that acts to inhibit localized population differentiation.

Acraea issoria 
This is a colony-forming species, and it's unusual to see only one specimen
The flight is weak and fluttery, but persistent. In cloudy weather they roost openly on stems or grass-heads.

Pseudergolis wedah

Ariadne ariadne - superficially similar to Pseudergolis wedah

Ariadne ariadne, copula

Kallima cf. (limborgii) incognita
Recently, some revisions on the Asian continental Kallima have been carried out by Nakamura & Wakahara (2013) and Nakamura (2014).  Monastyrskii & Devyatkin (2016) listed 3 species of Kallima in Vietnam: K.  albofasciata continentalis (in the South), K. incognita and K. alicia kishii (the two latter widely distributed throughout the country)

Athyma asura 

Athyma selenophora, male

Athyma selenophora, female, with its left wing chewed up

Athyma nefte, male

Cethosia cyane, female 

Euripus nyctelius - licking up the sweat from my finger
 It's often difficult to get close enough to a butterfly to get a photo, but from time to time they come to you!
The eyes of both sexes are yellow but those of the female are darker with varying degrees of brown shading.

Hestinalis nama
This species mimics Danaids especially Parantica sita and P. melaeneus, but differs in having submarginal lunules on both wings. 

Cirrochroa tyche

Phalanta phalantha 

Lexias pardalis, male

Symbrethia hypselis
There are about 14 species in the genus Symbrenthia, of which 4 are found in Vietnam - lilaea, hypselis, niphanda, leoparda. The former two are recorded in the north and center of the country, the latter two only from the north. S. lilaea and S. hypselis are the commonest members of the genus in Vietnam - but the latter have narrower habitat requirements and is much less often encountered.

Symbrethia lilaea

Vindula erota, female

Parthenos sylvia - more abundant in autumn
Distinctive flight with its wings flapping stiffly between the horizontal position and a few degrees below the horizontal

Stibochiona nicea, male & female feeding on Broussonetia papyrifera fruits

Pantoporia hordonia - copula
According to Monastyrskii & Devyatkin (2016), 5 Pantoporia species have been recorded in Vietnam: P. hordonia, P. sandaka, P. paraka, P. aurelia & P. bieti. The first three are widespread, the fourth is known from the Center and South, and the latter is only recorded from the North-West corner of the country (Lao Cai)

Charaxes bernardus
The Charaxinae are a group of large, robust Nymphalids characterised by their rapid and powerful flight, falcate apexes, and a habit of feeding at dung and carrion. They are represented in Africa by Charaxes, Euxanthe and Palla; in the neotropics by Consul, Memphis, Prepona and Agrias; and in the Oriental and Australian regions by Polyura and Charaxes.

Monastyrskii & Devyatkin (2016) listed 6 Charaxes species in Vietnam viz. solon, bernardus, marmax, aristogiton, kahruba & harmodius.

Eulaceura osteria
An interesting characteristic of this butterfly is that when disturbed, it flies rapidly and zips to the underside of a nearby leaf where it settles with its wings closed
Neptis hylas, underside

Neptis nata adipala 

Neptis miah

Euthalia aconthea, female 

Euthalia phemius, male - a nice find in October, unfortunately too far away for anything more than poor record shots 

Euthalia monina, male, feeding on fig
E. monina kesava is recorded in the north and the center of the country. It is replaced further south by E. monina remias. This species is one of  the commonest members of the genus in Vietnam.  

Cynitia lepidea - copula (female with wings spread)

Cynitia whiteheadi, female 
Formely known as Euthalia niepelti Strand, 1916

Well, after a number of years of searching but having little knowledge of the species, I finally clapped eyes on it: Dodona ouida - a seemingly rare and elusive montane species indeed. I only managed a poor record shot (heavily cropped) as it was just too far out of reach. Found mid-May at 1250m asl, near the summit. This species was discovered at Ba Vi in 2003, it was also the first record for Vietnam.

Nacaduba kurava, female

Nacaduba pactolus
 Monastyrskii & Devyatkin (2016) didn't listed this species from northern Vietnam. But its presence here is not surprising, as it's also known from southern China

Prosotas nora

Prosotas dubiosa

Megisba malaya

Acytolepis puspa

Chilades pandava

Cigaritis lohita

Cigaritis syama

Rapala suffusa, male
Note the circular bulge on the hindwing, indicating the presence of the circular brand on the upperside

Rapala suffusa, male & female, upperside

Rapala varuna

Tongeia potanini
Two species of Tongeia are known from Vietnam (Monastyrskii  & Devyatkin, 2016): T. potanini (subsp. potanini in the North, subsp. umbriel in Central VN) and T. ion (North only)

Sinthusa chandrana

Sinthusa chandrana, male, upperside

Artipe eryx, female - an unexpected and exciting discovery
This species is widespread (from India to Malaysia and north to Japan) but it appears to be very local in occurrence. In Vietnam, it is only recorded from Ha Giang Prov. (North) and Lam Dong Prov. (Centre) (Monastyrskii & Devyatkin, 2016)

Artipe eryx, female - an elusive little fellow!
This species is unique in that it features green undersides, and can camouflage itself very well amongst green foliage. Its English name is "Green Flash".

Artipe eryx, male

Yasoda tripunctata

Neopithecops zalmora

Horaga onyx - one of the highlights of the survey
A widespread species but the paucity of records in Vietnam suggest it is very local in occurrence
In North Vietnam, Monastyrskii & Devyatkin (2016) only mentioned it from Ba Be N.P.; I also found a mention of its occurrence at Tam Dao by Vu Van Lien (2013)

Horaga onyx, upperside

Deudorix epijarbas

Leptotes plinius

Tajuria maculata - a nice find and an addition to the Ba Vi list from Summer 2018
In Vietnam, this species appears to be very local in occurrence. It's only recorded from Ha Giang and Lang Son Prov. (North V.) and Quang Binh Prov. (Central V.) (Monastyrskii & Devyatkin, 2016)

Tajuria cf. yajna - found at an elevation of ca. 1100 m (survey 2018)

Mooreana trichoneura

Odontoptilum angulata

Satarupa gopala
Monastyrskii & Devyatkin (2016) listed 2 Satarupa species in Vietnam viz. gopala & zulla - the former widespread (N., C.), the latter only recorded from Lao Cai Prov..

Tagiadies litigiosa (left) & T. menaka - the former by far the commonest Tagiades seen in the area

Tagiades parra
The genus Tagiades comprises 17 known species. According to Monastyrskii & Devyatkin (2016), 7 have been recorded in Vietnam: japetus, gana, hybridus, parra, litigiosa, menaka & cohaerens.
Menaka, litigiosa, parra, hybridus and cohaerens show in both sexes large white tornal area of HW reaching space 4, unlike japetus and gana

Celaenorrhinus vietnamicus - species described in 1998 from Ba Vi

Udaspes folus  
Quite common in lowland forests as well as semicleared partly cultivated areas around villages  

Halpe zola or zema - copula
Whilst identification of Halpe species is problematic to say the least, this would appear to be either H. zema or H. zola. Genus Halpe needs specimens and checking genitalia.
 In Vietnam, zema is only recorded from Tuyen Quang Prov. (North) whilst zola is more widespread (N. & C. of the country)

Halpe cf. porus 

Badamia exclamationis resting on the underside of a leaf
Unmistakable with its long narrow forewing

Matapa aria or druna
M. druna can be easily confused with M. aria, but the male of the former has a large & curved grey brand whereas it is narrow in aria

Matapa sasivarna - Note the extensive metallic green hair scales on body

Pithauria stramineipennis

Parnara guttata
Note the UnH spots in spaces 2-5 neatly in line (straight line of decreasing spots upwards), distinctly white, no spot 6, UpF with two cellspots

Parnara guttata, same specimen below, showing UpF spotting
 Parnara bada & apostata have no FW cell spots. Male P. ganga usually have a single lower FW cellspot. P. guttata usually have two

Parnara sp.

Parnara species show a great similarity of the external features and it is often impossible to determine with certainty the species only from a photograph. For proper identification, it is better to voucher the specimen to have a complete view of the FW and HW pattern (often incomplete in a shot) and, ideally, to confirm the ID by examination of the genitalia - a matter for specialists.
In the females, the size and spotting pattern are highly variable, this making most of the species almost indistinguishable by the external features.

Suada albolineata
Species described in 2000. I observed it at Tam Dao & Ba Vi National Parks, and Huu Lien Nature Reserve  

Pirdana hyela

Pelopidas cf. agna - copula 

Pelopidas conjuncta - copula
This is a large skipper, FW spots large & yellowish, HW spots whitish

Polytremis lubricans 

Caltoris cf. cahira
Another difficult genus. Identification by the wing patterns is not easy. After taking a photograph in the wild, it is useful to catch the specimen and to inspect genitalia

Telicota sp., male
Sometimes positive identification of Hesperiidae is not possible until genitalia (especially of males) have been carefully dissected and examined in detail; this is especially true for species belonging to difficult genera such as Telicota
This genus is represented in Vietnam by 7 species – colon, augias, linna, besta, bambusae, ancilla and ohara (Monastyrskii & Devyatkin, 2016) 

Ancistroides nigrita

Asticopterus jama - common in grassy areas

Iambrix salsala 

Some day-flying moths encountered during the surveys:

Arctiidae, Ctenuchinae, Amata sp. ("Wasp Moth") 

Arctiinae ErebidNyctemera sp.

Arctiinae Erebid, Nyctemera sp.

Chalcosiinae Zygaenid, Histia sp. - mimics swallowtail butterflies

Epicopeia hainesii - a moth of the Epicopeiidae family (damaged specimen found on the ground, at an elevation of ca. 900-1000 m)
The species in this genus mimic butterflies of the agehana-group in the Papilio genus and Atrophaneura species. This is not a day-flying moth; adults fly in the evening and at night - flight activity starting just after sunset - and are attracted by light

Chalcosiinae Zygaenid, Cyclosia cf. papilionaris. This moth, which is a female, mimics the Glassy Tiger Parantica aglea in appearance and flight. Sexually dimorphic, the male is chocolate brown

Chalcosiinae, Zygaenidae Amesia aliris

Chalcosiinae Zygaenid, Pidorus atratus or glaucopis

Chalcosiinae Zygaenid, Cyclosia midamia 

Agaristinae Noctuid, Episteme adulatrix - colourful and attractive like a butterfly!

Agaristinae Noctuid, also something in the genus Episteme I think

Callidula sp.
This is a small moth but it looks like a butterfly, because it not only fly in the day but it also settle with its wing held vertically. But look at antennae, they are not clubbed - a main characteristics of moths.

Sphingidae, Macroglossinae, "Hummingbird Moth", possibly Cephonodes hylas

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